## Field of Science

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### The globe of Galileo

video by @ulaulaman #levitation

It's just a little Earth, turns and levitates above its base, reminding those who contributed to give it its rightful place in space. The globe can light up using the switch on the base. It works in the current network.

### Fabiola Gianotti, Director General at CERN

Fabiola Gianotti is an Italian particle physicist, a former spokesperson of the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN in Switzerland, considered one of the world's biggest scientific experiments. She has been selected as the next Director-General of CERN, starting on 1 January 2016.
She is the 4th italian particle physicist to became Director General at CERN after Amaldi (1952-1954), Rubbia (1989-1993) and Maiani (1999-2003).
A bit concession to the SEO!

### Planck results, ATLAS and the dark matter

http://t.co/jJxD8rhCr6 by @ulaulaman about #Planck, #ATLAS, #DarkMatter at #LHC
The last issue of Astronomy & Astrophysics (that it's free) is devoted to the Planck 2013 results:
This collection of 31 articles presents the initial scientific results extracted from this first Planck dataset, which measures the cosmic microwave background (CMB) with the highest accuracy to date. It provides major new advances in different domains of cosmology and astrophysics.
In the first paper there is an overview of 2013 science results, and we can read:
The Universe observed by Planck is well-fit by a six parameter, vacuum-dominated, cold dark matter (ACDM) model, and we provide strong constraints on deviations from this model.
But, in the meanwhile, ATLAS published a preprint about the quest of the dark matter in LHC:
The data are found to be consistent with the Standard Model expectations and limits are set on the mass scale of effective field theories that describe scalar and tensor interactions between dark matter and Standard Model particles. Limits on the dark-matter--nucleon cross-section for spin-independent and spin-dependent interactions are also provided. These limits are particularly strong for low-mass dark matter. Using a simplified model, constraints are set on the mass of dark matter and of a coloured mediator suitable to explain a possible signal of annihilating dark matter.
Tommaso Dorigo, examining ATLAS' results, concludes:
the ATLAS search increases significantly the sensitivity with respect to past searches, but no signal is found. As attractive as DM existence is as an economical explanation of a wealth of cosmological observations, the nature of dark matter continues to remain unknown.

via phys.org

### Regge theory

http://t.co/alaasqcHwl @ulaulaman says #goodbye to #TullioRegge
In quantum physics, Regge theory is the study of the analytic properties of scattering as a function of angular momentum, where the angular momentum is not restricted to be an integer but is allowed to take any complex value. The nonrelativistic theory was developed by Tullio Regge in 1957.
Following Chew and Frautschi (pdf), the key papers by Tullio Regge are:
Regge T. (1959). Introduction to complex orbital momenta, Il Nuovo Cimento, 14 (5) 951-976. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf02728177 (pdf)
In this paper the orbital momentumj, until now considered as an integer discrete parameter in the radial Schrödinger wave equations, is allowed to take complex values. The purpose of such an enlargement is not purely academic but opens new possibilities in discussing the connection between potentials and scattering amplitudes. In particular it is shown that under reasonable assumptions, fulfilled by most field theoretical potentials, the scattering amplitude at some fixed energy determines the potential uniquely, when it exists. Moreover for special classes of potentials $V(x)$, which are analytically continuable into a function $V(z)$, $z=x+iy$, regular and suitable bounded in $x > 0$, the scattering amplitude has the remarcable property of being continuable for arbitrary negative and large cosine of the scattering angle and therefore for arbitrary large real and positive transmitted momentum. The range of validity of the dispersion relations is therefore much enlarged.
Regge T. (1960). Bound states, shadow states and mandelstam representation, Il Nuovo Cimento, 18 (5) 947-956. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf02733035
In a previous paper a technique involving complex angular momenta was used in order to prove the Mandelstam representation for potential scattering. One of the results was that the number of subtractions in the transmitted momentum depends critically on the location of the poles (shadow states) of the scattering matrix as a function of the complex orbital momentum. In this paper the study of the position of the shadow states is carried out in much greater detail. We give also related inequalities concerning bound states and resonances. The physical interpretation of the shadow states is then discussed.
The importance of the model is summarized by the following:
As a fundamental theory of strong interactions at high energies, Regge theory enjoyed a period of interest in the 1960s, but it was largely succeeded by quantum chromodynamics. As a phenomenological theory, it is still an indispensable tool for understanding near-beam line scattering and scattering at very large energies. Modern research focuses both on the connection to perturbation theory and to string theory.
During the 1980s, Regge is interested also in the mathematical art, using Anschauliche Geometrie by David Hilbert and Stefan Cohn-Vossen like inspiration for a lot of mathematical objects.
Good bye, Mr. Regge, and thanks for all...

### Alan Guth, eternal inflation and the multiverse

http://t.co/CnvvOY0mAI about #AlanGuth #multiverse #CosmicInflation #icep2014
At the beggining of October, Alan Guth was at the workshop Fine-Tuning, Anthropics and the String Landscape at Madrid, and he concluded his talk with the following slide:
The complete talk, without question time, follows:

### Just a bit of blue

http://t.co/hgbABOxUlm by @ulaulaman about #nobelprize2014 on #physics #led #light #semiconductors

Created with SketchBookX
One of the first classifications that you learn when you start to study the behavior of matter interacting with electricity is between conductors and insulators: a conductor is a material that easily allows the passage of electric charges; on the other hand, an insulator prevents it (or makes it difficult). It is possible to characterize these two kinds of materials through the physical characteristics of the atoms that compose them. Indeed, we know that an atom is characterized by having a positive nucleus with electron clouds which rotate around it: to characterize a material is precisely the behavior of the outer electrons, those of the external band. On the other hand, the energy bands of every atom are characterized by specific properties: there are the valence bands, where the electrons are used in the chemical bonds, and the conduction bands, where the electrons are free to move, the "mavericks" of the atom, used for ionic bonds. At this point I hope it is simple to characterize a conductive material such as the one whose atoms have electrons both in the valence band, both in the conduction band, while an insulating material is characterized by having full only the valence band.
Now, in band theory, the probability that an electron occupies a given band is calculated using the Fermi-Dirac distribution: this means that there is a non-zero probability that an insulator's electron in the valence band is promoted to the conduction band, but it is extremely low because of the large energy difference between the two levels. Moreover, there is an energy level said Fermi level that, while in the conductors is located within the conduction band, in the insulation is located between the two bands, the conduction and valence, allowing a valence electron to jump more easily in the conduction band.